The shape of the HP Model demonstrates that athletes process the least amount of information and demonstrate the most consistent performance-related behavior (i.e., timing, bio-mechanics) during skill execution. This is reflected in the middle, narrow part of the HP Model.
The principles and the functional phases of the HP Model can be found in any type of sport. The durations of the phases in the HP Model vary between the different sports, depending on the sport-specific task demands. Reactive sports like basketball or soccer often demonstrate shorter functional phases and shorter HP Models, compared to self-paced sports like golf and shooting.
The management of thoughts and emotions is an important element of an athlete’s mental performance. The athlete’s ability to self-regulate these thoughts and emotions determines the quality of the HP Model in sport, as shown below.