Hourglass Performance Model


Throughout our lifetime we continuously carry out or accomplish an action, task, or function. The Hourglass Performance (HP) model is an evidence-based framework that describes 3 specific phases that are required if we would like to perform these activities optimal in life.

Hourglass Performance Model

Most of our activities that we perform in life demonstrate a sequence of 3 functional phases, including the pre-performance, performance, and post-performance phase.

Introduction to the HP Model

The shape of the HP model can be logically explained. Activities that we perform in life are often actions that we have repeated many times.

Successful performance of these activities usually requires narrow and focused attention, which is illustrated by the narrow (performance) part of the HP model.

Our attention is generally broader when we prepare before or regroup after we perform a specific activity.

This is demonstrated by the wider (pre-performance and post-performance) parts of the HP model.

Pre-Performance Performance Post-Performance P

Performance and Focused Attention

Performance (P) in sport, at school, at work, or at home requires focused attention!


Scientific Validation of the HP Model:

The principles of the HP model have been validated by research findings in many different types of expertise including cognitive-behavioral psychology, neurophysiology, performance, sleep and health science.

These principles are important to optimize many different types of performance, physical activities, focus, information processing, problem-solving, empathy, communication, decision-making, and sleep.

P ?

Featured Articles

Check out Our Latest Articles

HPI court with HPI logo

A Change in Behavior Starts with...

Players’ ability and inability to change certain behaviors is truly fascinating. Researchers Prochaska and DiClemente studied how people change addictive and health behaviors.

HPI court with HPI logo

Stolen Games

A stolen game is a game in which both players have a winning opportunity. It has a minimum of eight points, unless a no-ad scoring system is used.

HPI court with HPI logo

Individual arousal-related performance zones effect on...

This study sought to examine changes in routine consistency with respect to optimal and nonoptimal arousal states. Idiosyncratic differences in routine patterns, both behaviorally and temporally were evident.

HPI court with HPI logo

Intrateam Communication and Performance in Doubles...

Verbal and nonverbal communication is a critical mediator of performance in team sports and yet there is little extant research in sports that involves direct measures of communication.


“Dr. van der Lei’s dedication to providing the best applied research based mental performance assessment and training services for golfers built upon objective and reliable measures, his utilization of the latest technology available, and his contribution as a team player within our men’s and women’s golf programs in supporting our golfers in their sport and daily life, are highly appreciated and we are looking forward to collaborating with Harry for many years to come!”

Trey Jones - Head men’s coach and Director of Golf for the men’s and women’s golf programs at Florida State University

“Dr. Lausic has a unique approach which is head and shoulders above the countless other sports psychologists I have worked with in my forty-year career as a player, coach, manager and mentor.”

Rodney Harmon - Head Coach Women's Tennis, Georgia Institute of Technology

“Dr. Lausic worked extensively with my women's tennis program at Clemson University where I saw his work increase the performance level of our student athletes over a period of just a few months...I saw an amazing sense of resiliency begin to take place in each athlete coinciding with increased confidence and trust in one's own ability.”

Nancy Harris - Head Coach Women's Tennis, ret., Clemson University

“After only a few routine training sessions, I achieved my best results for the year of 2012. The positive changes in my golf game were unreal. Since then, I have started to understand the importance of the Hourglass Performance Model and of specific breathing techniques for better results on and off the course.”

Macarena Silva - Professional golfer, winner of the 2006 Matchplay de Chile and the 2010 Copa de los Andes as an amateur. Macarena turned professional in June 2011 and currently resides in her hometown Santiago, Chile.

Harry’s expertise in mental performance has helped me greatly in controlling my emotions and being able to relax and focus before and during my competitive races.

Chad Hedrick - Long Track Speedskating, 2006 Olympic Bronze, Silver, and Gold Medalist.